DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-1770.ijrcog20211144

Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among pregnant women with known HIV status and their perinatal outcome- a retrospective single centre analysis

Supriya Chaubey, Ragini Melhotra, Umesh Sharma

Abstract


Background: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and other reproductive tract infections (RTIs) among pregnant women and their perinatal outcome.

Methods: Pregnant women in their 3rd trimester (N=1000) from September 2009 and august 2010 were included. Information related to demographic profile, obstetrics complications, previous genital infections and gynecological diseases were taken. All pregnant women were followed up for their 4-week perinatal outcome.

Results: The prevalence of sexually transmitted infection was 25.2% in pregnant women. The prevalence of HIV, Hepatitis B, HSV2 and HPV infection was 2.3%, 4.2%, 0.6%, 0.1% respectively. Prevalence of infection with C. trachomatis, G. vaginalis, T. vaginalis and C. albicans was 5.8%, 10.2%, 5.2%, 9.5% respectively. The prevalence of infection with N. gonorrhea and T. pallidum was found to be 0.

Conclusions: Rates of STIs and RTIs are still high among pregnant women. A declining trend for curable STIs/RTIs (syphilis and gonorrhea) was noted. Perinatal outcome was affected adversely in pregnant women with STIs/RTIs.


Keywords


HIV status, Mixed STIs, Non-viral STIs, STI in pregnancy, Viral STIs

Full Text:

PDF

References


WHO Report on global sexually transmitted infection surveillance, 2018. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/277258/9789241565691-eng.pdf. Accessed on 22 December 2020

Mullick S, Watson-Jones D, Beksinska M, Mabey D. Sexually transmitted infections in pregnancy: prevalence, impact on pregnancy outcomes, and approach to treatment in developing countries. Sex Transmit Infect. 2005;81(4):294-302.

Wilkinson D, Karim SA, Harrison A, Lurie M, Colvin M, Connolly C, et al. Unrecognized sexually transmitted infections in rural South African women: a hidden epidemic. Bull World health Organ. 1999;77(1):22.

Mwakagile D, Swai AB, Sandström E, Urassa E, Biberfeld G, Mhalu FS. High frequency of sexually transmitted diseases among pregnant women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: need for intervention. East Afr Med J. 1996;73(10):675-8.

Menendez C, Castellsague X, Renom M, Sacarlal J, Quinto L, Lloveras B, et al. Prevalence and risk factors of sexually transmitted infections and cervical neoplasia in women from a rural area of southern Mozambique. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2010;2010:609315.

Chico RM, Mayaud P, Ariti C, Mabey D, Ronsmans C, Chandramohan D. Prevalence of malaria and sexually transmitted and reproductive tract infections in pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. JAMA. 2012;307(19):2079-86.

Williams CL, Harrison LL, Llata E, Smith RA, Meites E. Sexually transmitted diseases among pregnant women: 5 states, United States, 2009–2011. Matern Child Health J. 2018;22(4):538-45.

Msuya SE, Uriyo J, Hussain A, Mbizvo EM, Jeansson S, Sam NE, et al. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among pregnant women with known HIV status in northern Tanzania. Reprod Health. 2009;6(1):1-8.

Blankhart D, Müller O, Gresenguet G, Weis P. Sexually transmitted infections in young pregnant women in Bangui, Central African Republic. Int J STD AIDS. 1999;10(9):609-14.

Teasdale CA, Abrams EJ, Chiasson MA, Justman J, Blanchard K, Jones HE. Incidence of sexually transmitted infections during pregnancy. PLoS One. 2018;13(5):e0197696.

Morrison CS, Wang J, Van Der Pol B, Padian N, Salata RA, Richardson BA. Pregnancy and the risk of HIV-1 acquisition among women in Uganda and Zimbabwe. AIDS. 2007;21(8):1027-34.

Gray GE, McIntyre JA. HIV and pregnancy. BMJ. 2007;334(7600):950-3.

Mugo NR, Heffron R, Donnell D, Wald A, Were EO, Rees H, et al. Increased risk of HIV-1 transmission in pregnancy: a prospective study among African HIV-1-serodiscordant couples. AIDS. 2011;25(15):1887-95.

Rathore S, Jamwal A, Gupta V. Herpes simplex virus type 2: seroprevalence in antenatal women. Indian J Sex Transm Dis AIDS. 2010;31(1):11-5.

Diclemente RJ, Wingood GM, Crosby RA, Rose E, Lang D, Pillay A, et al. A descriptive analysis of STD prevalence among urban pregnant African-American teens: data from a pilot study. J Adolesc Health. 2004;34(5):376-83.

Johnson HL, Ghanem KG, Zenilman JM, Erbelding EJ. Sexually transmitted infections and adverse pregnancy outcomes among women attending inner city public sexually transmitted diseases clinics. Sex Transmit Dis. 2011;38:167-71.

Johnson PJ, Hellerstedt WL. Current or past physical or sexual abuse as a risk marker for sexually transmitted disease in pregnant women. Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2002;34:62-7.

Sutton M, Sternberg M, Koumans EH, McQuillan G, Berman S, Markowitz L. (2007). The prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among reproductive-age women in the United States, 2001-2004. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45:1319-26.

Satterwhite CL, Gray AM, Berman S, Weinstock H, Kleinbaum D, Howards PP. (2012). Chlamydia trachomatis infections among women attending prenatal clinics: United States, 2004-2009. Sex Transmit Dis. 2012;39:416-20.

Wheeler R, Earnshaw VA, Kershaw T, Ickovics JR. Postpartum sexually transmitted disease: Refining our understanding of the population at risk. Sex Transmit Dis. 2012;39:509-13.

Kekki M, Kurki T, Kotomäki T, Sintonen H, Paavonen J. Cost-effectiveness of screening and treatment for bacterial vaginosis in early pregnancy among women at low risk for preterm birth. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2004;83(1):27-36.

Cotch MF, Hillier SL, Gibbs RS, Eschenbach DA. Epidemiology and outcomes associated with moderate to heavy Candida colonization during pregnancy. Vaginal Infections and Prematurity Study Group. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998;178(2):374-80.

Andrews WW, Goldenberg RL, Mercer B, Iams J, Meis P, Moawad A, et al. The preterm prediction study: association of second-trimester genitourinary chlamydia infection with subsequent spontaneous preterm birth. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000;183(3):662-8.

Kiss H, Petricevic L, Husslein P. Prospective randomized controlled trial of an infection screening programme to reduce the rate of preterm delivery. BMJ. 2004;329(7462):371.