DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-1770.ijrcog20211105

A study of blood pressure levels and other factors that contribute to a good pregnancy outcome

Eleni Apostolos Karanasiou, Thaleia Karvana, Konstantina Rizothanasi

Abstract


Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the awareness of blood pressure before and during pregnancy by pregnant women as well as the factors of pathological increase and if woman is going to adapt to the new situation changing their lifestyle and food habits during pregnancy           .

Methods: The study was conducted on 318 pregnant women to assess their knowledge and attitude about pregnancy and the development of high-risk pathology who had visited the Public Obstetric Hospital of Athens “Elena Venizelou”, from December 2019 to August 2020. Then were given a pre-designed structured questionnaire on socio-demographic, variable knowledge and attitude about health and pregnancy.

Results: According to the study it was found that a proportion watching their diet (61%), limiting smoking (29% smoker, 12% of them smokes minimum), but a large number of them were unaware of preeclampsia (46%) and especially whether an increase in blood pressure occurs in preeclampsia (45%), leg edema (56%) and albuminuria (74%), while 77% of them ignore what is albuminuria and this is directly linked to the level of education, age and nationality.

Conclusions: The study concludes that a large number of the sample ignores the complications of pregnancy and the development of these predisposing factors. The main disadvantage of this study is that there was not a random sample of people asked. Thus, in the future it is proposed that a similar survey should be conducted in various nursing institutions.


Keywords


Blood pressure, Complications of pregnancy, Preeclampsia-eclampsia

Full Text:

PDF

References


Tan EK, Tan EL. Alterations in physiology and anatomy during pregnancy. Best Pract Res Obstet Gynaecol. 2013;27(6):791-802.

Wise RA, Polito AJ, Krishnan V. Respiratory physiologic change in pregnancy. Immunol Allerg Clin North Am. 2006;26(1):1-12.

Capeless Clapp JF. Cardiovascular changes in early phase of pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gyneol. 1989;161(6 Pt 1):1449-53.

Hedderson M, Ferrara A. High blood pressure before and during early pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2008;31(12):2362-6.

Matthew HJ, Robert CO. Respiratory physiology in pregnancy. Clin Chest Med. 2011;32(1):1-13.

Hermida RC, Ayala DE, Mojón A, Fernández JR, Alonso I, Silva I, et al. Blood pressure patterns in normal pregnancy, gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia. Hypertension. 2000;36(2):149-58.

Klein HH, Pich S. Cardiovascular changes during pregnancy. Herz. 2003;28(3):173-4.

Siu SC, Sermer M, Colman JM, Alvarez AN, Mercier LA, Morton BC, et al. Prospective multicenter study of pregnancy outcomes in women with heart disease. Circulation. 2001;104(5):515-21.

Wise RA, Polito AJ, Krishnan V. Respiratory physiologic change in pregnancy. Immunol Allerg Clin North Am. 2006;26(1):1-12.

Casey BM, Lucas MJ, Mcintire DD, Leveno KJ. Pregnancy outcomes in women with gestational diabetes compared with the general obstetric population. Obstet Gynecol. 1997;90(6):869-73.

Jovanovic LG, Pettitt DL. Gestational diabetes mellitus. JAMA. 2001;286(20):2516-8.

King JC. Maternal obesity, metabolism, and pregnancy outcomes Annu Rev Nutr. 2006;26:271-91.

Benedetto C, Marozio L, Tancredi A, Picardo A, Nardolillo P, Tavella AM et al. Biochemistry of HELLP syndrome. Adv Clin Chem. 2011;53:85-104.

Cipolla MJ. Cerebrovascular function in pregnancy and eclampsia. Hypertension. 2007;50:14-24.

Dekker GA, Sibai BM. Etiology and pathogenesis of preeclampsia: current concepts. Am J Obstet Gynecol .1998;179:1359-75.

Hubel CA. Oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1999;222(3):222-35.

Duckitt K, Harrington D. Risk factors for pre-eclampsia at antenatal booking: systymatic review of controlled studies. BMJ. 2005;330(7491):565.

von Dadelszen P, Magee LA, Roberts JM. Sub classification of preeclampsia. Hypertens Pregnanc. 2003;22:143-8.

Dekker GA, Sibai BM. Etiology and pathogenesis of preeclampsia: current concepts. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998;179:1359-75.

Giles TD, Berk BC, Black HR, Cohn JN, Kostis JB, Izzo Jr JL, et al. Expanding the definition and classification of hypertension. J Clin Hypertens. 2005;7(9):505-12.

Matthew HJ, Robert CO. Respiratory physiology in pregnancy. Clin Chest Med. 2011;32(1):1-13.

Hermida RC, Ayala DE, Mojón A, Fernández JR, Alonso I, Silva I, et al. Blood pressure patterns in normal pregnancy, gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia. Hypertension. 2000;36(2):149-58.

Hofmeyr GJ. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy for preventing hypertensive disorders and related problems. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;4(8):CD001059.

Kaiser L, Allen LH. Position of the American Dietetic Association: nutrition and lifestyle for a healthy pregnancy outcome. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108(3):553-61.

Duckitt K, Harrington D. Risk factors for pre-eclampsia at antenatal booking: systymatic review of controlled studies. BMJ. 2005;330(7491):565.

No authors listed. Management of uncomplicated hypertension during pregnancy. Prescrire Int. 2011;20(113):50-1.

Hladunewich M, Karumanch SA, Lafayette R. Pathophysiology of the clinical manifestations of preeclampsia. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007;2:543-49.

Scott‐Pillai RA, Spence D, Cardwell CR, Hunter A, Holmes VA. The impact of body mass index on maternal and neonatal outcomes: a retrospective study in a UK obstetric population, 2004-2011. BJOG. 2013;120(8):932-9.

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). Smoking Cessation during Pregnancy. ACOG Committee Opinion, number 316. Obstet Gynecol. 2005;106(4):883-8.

Bakker R, Steegens EA, Raat H, Hoffman A, Jaddoe V. Maternal caffeine intake blood pressure and the risk of hypertensive complications during pregnancy. The generation R Study. Am J Hypertens. 2011;24(4):421-8.

Bracken MB, Triche EW, Belanger K, Hellenbrand K, Leaderer BP. Association of maternal caffeine consumption with decrements in fetal growth. Am J Epidemiol. 2003;157(5):456-66.

Erickson AC, Arbour LT. Heavy smoking during pregnancy as a marker for other risk factors of adverse birth outcomes: a population-based study in British Columbia, Canada. BMC Public Health. 2012;12:102.

Grosso LM, Rosenberg KD, Belanger K, Saftlas AF, Leaderer B, Bracken MB. Maternal caffeine intake and intrauterine growth retardation. Epidemiology. 2001;12(4):447-55.

Higdon J, Frei B. Coffee and health: a review of recent human research. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2006;46(2):101-23.

Law KL, Stroud LR, LaGasse LL, Niaura R, Liu J, Lester BM. Smoking during pregnancy and newborn neurobehavior. Pediatrics. 2003;111(6):1318-23.

Mehaffey K, Higginson A, Cowan J, Osborne GM, Arbour LT. Maternal smoking at first prenatal visit as a marker of risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes in the Qikiqtaaluk (Baffin) Region. Rural Remote Health. 2010;10(3):1484.

Bakker R, Steegers EA, Obradov A, Raat H, Hofman A, Jaddoe VW. Maternal caffeine intake from coffee and tea, fetal growth, and the risks of adverse birth outcomes: the Generation R Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;91(6):1691-8.

Weng X, Odouli R, Li DK. Maternal caffeine consumption during pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage: a prospective cohort study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;198(3):279-e1.

Yang Z, Huffman SL. Nutrition in pregnancy and early childhood and associations with obesity in developing countries. Matern Child Nutr. 2013;9(1):105-19.

Räisänen S, Sankilampi U, Gissler M, Kramer MR, Hakulinen-Viitanen T, Saari J, et al. Smoking cessation in the first trimester reduces most obstetric risks, but not the risks of major congenital anomalies and admission to neonatal care: a population-based cohort study of 1 164 953 singleton pregnancies in Finland. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2014;68(2):159-64.

Brown CM, Turner ST, Bailey KR, Mosley Jr TH, Kardia SL, Wiste HJ, et al. Hypertension in pregnancy is associated with elevated C-reactive protein levels later in life. J Hypertens. 2013;31(11):2213.

Goossens J, Beeckman D, Van Hecke A, Delbaere I, Verhaeghe S. Preconception lifestyle changes in women with planned pregnancies. Midwifery. 2018;56:112-20.

Jarosz RWM, Wojda B. Caffeine intake during pregnancy and neonatal anthropometric parameters. Nutrients. 2019;11(4) 806:1-10.

Hillier SE, Olander EK. Women’s dietary changes before and during pregnancy: a systematic review. Midwifery. 2017;49:19-31.