Analysis of burden of sexual assaults at Abuja: a 4-year retrospective study
Keywords:Abuja, Assailants, Sexual assaults, Victims, Violence
Background: Sexual assault is a worldwide crime associated with traumatic experience and largely affects women and girls. It is greatly underreported, more especially in the low income countries due to our peculiar culture.
Methods: A retrospective study of sexual assault victims managed at the Hospital from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2018. Case notes were retrieved and relevant data extracted and analyzed.
Results: A total of 58 cases were seen and mostly involving pupils/students 44 (75.9%) and singles 52 (89.7%). The ages ranged from 3 to 37 years with a mean of 14.1±7.8. The assailants were known to the victims in 63.8% of cases. Sexual assault through vaginal route was the commonest type 57 (98.3%) and perpetrated by one person in majority of cases (79.0%). Physical force (43.1%) was major method used to subdue victims. About 60.3% of assaults occurred during the daytime and mainly occurred (60.4%) at home/office. The time interval between assault and presentation in the hospital ranged from 6 hours to 96 hours; majority presented within 24 hours (59.6%). Only 35 (60.3%) reported to the police. About 48.3% received post exposure prophylaxis. About 37.7% eligible for emergency contraception received it. Only 32.8% of the victims completed 3- month follow-up.
Conclusions: Sexual assault is common in our environment with most victims being less than 14 years of age and assailants were mostly persons known to them. Some victims presented late.
Sodipo OO, Adedokun A, Adejumo AO, Olibamoyo O. The pattern and characteristics of sexual assault perpetrators and survivors managed at a sexual assault referral center in Lagos. Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med. 2018;10(1):a1727.
Sexual violence. World Health Organization. Available from: https://www.who.int/ reproductivehealth/topics/violence/sexual_violence/en/. Accessed on 23 October 2019.
Ezechi OC, Adesolamusa Z, David AK, Wapmuk AE, Gbajabiamila TA, Eugeniaidigbe I, et al. Trends and patterns of sexual assaults in Lagos south-western Nigeria. Pan Afr Med J. 2016;24:261.
Akinlusi FM, Rabiu KA, Olawepo TA, Adewunmi AA, Ottun TA, Akinola OI. Sexual assault in Lagos, Nigeria: a five year retrospective review. BMC Women’s Health. 2014;23(14):115.
Home Office. Guidance on Part 1 of the Sexual Offences Act 2003. Home Office Circular. 2004;75(2):021s.
Adeleke NA, Olowookere AS, Hassan MB, Komolafe JO, Asekun-Olarinmoye EO. Sexual assault against women at Osogbo southwestern Nigeria. Niger J Clin Pract. 2012;15(2):190-3.
Haile RT, Kebeta ND, Kassie GM. Prevalence of sexual abuse of male high school students in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. BMC Int Health Hum Rights. 2013;13(1):1-8.
Badejoko OO, Anyabolu HC, Badejoko BO, Ijarotimi AO, Kuti O, Adejuyigbe EA. Sexual assault in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Niger Med J. 2014;55:254-9.
Akin-Odanye EO. Prevalence and management of child sexual abuse cases presented at Nigeria hospitals: a sysmatic review. J Health Soc Sci. 2018;3(2):109-29.
Garcia-Moreno C, Watts C. Violence against women: an urgent public health priority. Bull World Health Organ. 2011;89:2.
Kullima AA, Kawuwa MB Audu BM, Mairiga AG, Bukar M. Sexual assault against female Nigerian students. Afr J Reprod Health. 2010;14(3):189-93.
Daru PH, Osagie EO, Pam IC, Mutihir JT, Silas OA, Ekwempu CC. Analysis of cases of rape as seen at the Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, North Central Nigeria. Niger J Clin Pract. 2011;14:47-51.
Peterman A, Palemo T, Bredenkamp C. Estimates and determinants of sexual violence against women in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Am J Public Health. 2011;101(6):1060-7.
Sexual violence. In: World report on violence and Health. 2002:149-181. Available from: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/global_campaign/en/chap6.pdf. Accessed on 23 October 2019.
Steele SJ, Abrahams N, Duncan K, Woollett N, Hwang B, O’Connell L, et al. The epidemiology of rape and sexual violence in the platinum mining district of Rustenburg, South Africa: Prevalence, and factors associated with sexual violence. PLoS One. 2019;14(7):e0216449.
Folayan MO, Odetoyinbo M, Harrison A, Brown B. Rape in Nigeria: a silent epidemic among adolescents with implications for HIV infection. Glob Health Action. 2014;7:10.
Raj A, McDougal L. Sexual violence and rape in India. Lancet. 2014; 383(8):865.
Al-Azad MA, Raman Z, Ahmad M, Wahab MA, Ali M, Khalil MI. Socio-demographic characteristics of alleged sexual assault (rape) cases in Dhaka city. J Armed Forces Med Coll Bangladesh. 2012;7(2):21-4.
Jewkes R, Abrahams N. The epidemiology of rape and sexual coercion in South Africa: an overview. Soc Sci Med. 2002;55(7):1231-44.
Akinade E, Adewuyi T, Sulaiman A. Socio-legal factors that influence the perpetuation of rape in Nigeria. Procedia Soc Behav Sci. 2010;5:1760-4.
Ononge S, Wandabwa J, Kiondo P, Busingye R. Clinical presentation and management of alleged sexually assaulted females at Mulago hospital, Kampala, Uganda. Afr Health Sci. 2005;5(1):50-4.
Nwafor CC, Akhiwu WO. Medicolegal analysis of sexual assault victims in Benin, Nigeria. N Niger J Clin Res. 2019;8:10-7.
Caroline HO, Richter A. Exploring Intersections between Gender Violence; Lessons from Zimbabwe. Afr J Reprod Health. 1999;3:51-65.
Utoo BT, Ilora E, Utoo PM. Sexual assault reported at a law enforcement health facility in Makurdi, North-central Nigeria. J Pregnanc Reprod. 2018;2(6):5.
Adelodun O, Adekola T, Adekanmbi D. Statistical analysis of sampled cases of sexually assaulted female students in a Nigerian Private University. Int J Statist Appl. 2017;7(4):222-7.
Golan A, Dishi-Galitzky M, Barda J, Lurie S. The care of sexual assault victims: The first regional centre in Israel- 10 years’ experience. IMAJ. 2012;14:658-61.