DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-1770.ijrcog20205756

The impact of COVID-19 outbreak and lockdown on maternal complications during pregnancy

Kariman Ghazal, Jihad El Hasan, Hanine Hijasi, Maysalloun Khayrallah, Loubna Sinno, Eva Koulaymi

Abstract


Background: The COVID-19 outbreak has affected pregnant women. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of COVID-19 outbreak and lockdown on maternal complications in pregnant women.

Methods: A retrospective review of pregnant patients who presented for antenatal care to the private clinic in Beirut, Lebanon before or during the COVID-19 lockdown which started in March 2020. The first group consisted of women before the lockdown between September 1, 2019 and February 29, 2020. The second group included women during or after the lockdown between March 1, 2020 and August 31, 2020.

Results: A total of 97 women were included, 48 in the before lockdown group and 49 during or after lockdown group. The percentage of epigastric pain was significantly lower in the first group (12.5% vs. 71.4% respectively, p-value<0.0001). Anemia was significantly lower in the before group (60.4% vs. 83.7%, respectively p-value=0.01). Vomiting and hypotension were significantly higher in the after group. Around 87% of women in the before group had flu-like symptoms such as muscle ache and dizziness compared to 44.9% and 46.9% in the after group (p-value<0.0001). None of the patients in the after group visited the emergency department or were hospitalized during pregnancy. Almost 43% of patients in the after group had severe anxiety compared to 14.6% in the before group (p-value=0.001).

Conclusions: Lockdown influenced maternal complications during pregnancy and resulted in anxiety for many women. Management practices regarding pregnancy and childbirth after lockdown are necessary to minimize the associated negative consequences.


Keywords


COVID-19, Lockdown, Pregnancy complications

Full Text:

PDF

References


Li M, Yin H, Jin Z, Zhang H, Leng B, Luo Y, et al. Impact of Wuhan lockdown on the indications of caesarean delivery and newborn weights during the epidemic period of COVID 19. Plos One 2020;15:e0237420.

Suda T, Miura Y, Katayama M, Senba H, Takahata M, Nakano S. Worries and concerns about COVID-19 lockdown aggravate stress reactions among pregnant women. Res Sq preprint, 2020.

Mappa I, Adalgisa Distefano F, Rizzo G. Effect of corona virus 19 pandemic on maternal anxiety during pregnancy: a prospective observational study. J Perinat Med. 2020;48:545-50.

Nwafor JI, Okedo-Alex IN, Ikeotuonye AC. Prevalence and predictors of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among pregnant women during COVID-19-related lockdown in Abakaliki, Nigeria. MedRxiv, 2020.

Zhang J, Zhang Y, Huo S, Ma Y, Ke Y, Wang P, et al. Emotional eating in pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic and is association with dietary intake and gestational weight gain. Nutrients. 2020;12:2250.

Ravaldi C, Ricca V, Wilson A, Homer C, Vannacci A. Previous psychopathology predicted severe COVID-19 concern, anxiety and PTSD symptoms in pregnant women during lockdown in Italy. MedRxiv, 2020.

Lau H, Khosrawipour V, Kocbach P, Mikolajczyk A, Schubert J, Bania J, et al. The positive impact of lockdown in Wuhan on containing the COVID-19 outbreak in China. J Travel Med. 2020;27:taaa037.

Stampini V, Monzani A, Capristia S, Ferrante G, Gerbino M, Amadori R, et al. A survey among Italian pregnant women and new mothers during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. Research Square, 2020.

Kumari V, Mchata K, Choudhary R. COVID-19 outbreak and decreased hospitalisation of pregnant women in labour. Lancet. 2020;8:e1116-7.

Philip RK, Purtill H, Reidy E, Daly M, Imcha M, McGrath D, et al. Reduction in preterm births during the COVID-19 lockdown in Ireland: a natural experiment allowing analysis of data from the prior two decades. MedRxiv, 2020.

Grandi G, Delsavio M, Caroli M, Capobianco G, Dessole F, Tupponi G, et al. The impact of covid 19 lockdown on admission to gynaecological emergency departments: results from a multicentre Italian study. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 2020;151:39-42.

Ceulemenans M, Verbakel J, Van calstren K. SARS-COV-2 infections and impact of the CVID-19 pandemic in pregnancy and breastfeeding: result from an observational study in primary care in Belgium. Int J Environ Res Pub Heal. 2020;17:6766.

Oskovi- Kaplan A, Buyuk G, Ozgu-Erdine S, Keskin HL, Ozbas A, Tekin OM. The effect of COVID-19 pandemic and social restrictions on depression rates and maternal attachment in immediate postpartum women: A preliminary study. Psychiatr Q. 2020:1-8.

Hedermann G, Hedley PL, Baekvad-Hansen M, Hjalgrim H, Rostgaard K, Poorisrisak P, et al. Changes in premature birth rates during the Danish nationwide COVID-19 lockdown: a nationwide register-based prevalence proportion study. MedRxiv, 2020.

Milne SJ, Corbett GA, Hehir MP, Lindow SW, Mohan S, Reagu S, et al. Effects of isolation on mood and relationships in pregnant women during the covid-19 pandemic. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2020;252:610-1.