DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-1770.ijrcog20202737

Evaluation of endometrial causes of postmenopausal bleeding with it's correlation with endometrial thickness and hysteroscopy findings and endometrial tissue histopathology

Saurabh V. Bhangale, Shailja Sharma, Asmita Patil, Beena Kumari

Abstract


Background: Postmenopausal bleeding (PMB)accounts for 5% of gynecology visit. All with unexpected uterine bleeding should be evaluated for endometrial carcinoma since this potentially lethal disease is the cause of bleeding in approximately 10 percent patients (range 1 to 25 percent, depending upon risk factors). The aim of the study was to evaluate endometrial causes of postmenopausal bleeding (PMB) with it's correlation with endometrial thickness (ET)and hysteroscopy findings and endometrial tissue histopathology.

Methods: A total 50 consecutive cases of PMB fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria and giving informed consent were selected. Each patient was subjected to transvaginal sonography (TVS) in which uterus, adnexa and endometrial thickness (ET) was assessed. Then hysteroscopy and/or dilation and curettage was scheduled at subsequent visit. Endometrial sample was sent for histopathological examination. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and diagnostic accuracy was calculated for ET by TVS and hysteroscopy findings, considering histopathological diagnosis as the gold standard.

Results: Most common endometrial cause of PMB was atrophic endometrium (44%). The other causes were endometrial carcinoma (18%), endometrial hyperplasia (18%), endometrial polyp (12%), endometritis (4%), and leiomyoma (4%). The diagnostic accuracy of ET by TVS at a cut-off point of 5 mm was 94% with sensitivity 89.3%, specificity 100%, PPV 100% and NPV 88%. The diagnostic accuracy of hysteroscopy was 98% with sensitivity 96.4%, specificity 100%, PPV 100% and NPV 95.7%.

Conclusions: Being relatively cheap, easily accessible, non-invasive, TVS with ET measurement should first line investigation in the evaluation of women with postmenopausal bleeding with suspected endometrial pathology. Although hysteroscopy is more specific and sensitive, in poor resource settings it should be limited to cases with ill-defined endometrial lining, recurrent/ persistent bleeding and cases with endometrial thickness greater than 5 mm irrespective of endometrial echotexture.


Keywords


Endometrial thickness, Hysteroscopy, Postmenopausal bleeding, Transvaginal sonography

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