DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-1770.ijrcog20193778

A study of cervical cytology in females above 21 years of age

Nidhi Singh, Hanslata Gehlot

Abstract


 

Background: Cancer cervix is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in developing countries like India most probably due to lack of proper screening facilities or due to the lack of awareness amongst the women of developing countries. Worldwide, cervical cancer is the second most common and 5th deadliest cancer in women. This study was conducted in department of obstetrics and Gynaecology, Umaid hospital, Dr. S. N. Medical College, Jodhpur Rajasthan, India. The objective of this study was to study the various high risk factors involved in premalignant and malignant lesions of cervix. To study the incidence of different epithelial abnormalities of cervix in females above 21 years of age. To study premalignant and malignant lesions of the cervix in relation to the presenting complaint

Methods: The study was conducted in 500 females above 21 years of age and who were not pregnant, who had been attending Umaid Hospital, Jodhpur for various gynaecological complaints, of different parity, residential status and socioeconomic class. Detailed history was taken and thorough examination was done. Pap smear was prepared and all smears were reported as per the Bethesda system.

Results: Maximum numbers of patients were in the age group of 21-40 years (70.2%). Majority of patients were from rural area (52.4%) and from lower socioeconomic class (30.2%). Most of women were found to have duration of marriage between 10 to 30 years (63.4%). Most of the women in our study had age at marriage between 17 to 19 years (49.4%). Multiparity was seen in 84.2% of cases. The commonest presenting complaint was white discharge (46.8%). On Pap smear, maximum cases were of inflammatory smear (91.4%), 1.4% had ASCUS, 1.2% AGC, 1.4% LSIL, 1% HSIL and 0.4% had SCC.

Conclusions: Cervical cytology is an important tool for early detection of premalignant and malignant lesions of cervix. Regular pap smear screening should be conducted in vulnerable age groups.


Keywords


Cervical cancer, Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, Pap smear, The bethesda system

Full Text:

PDF

References


Malur PR, Desai BR, Dalal A, Dundi G, Sherigan B, Gupta P. A study on sequential screening with cytology and colposcopy in detection of cervical Neoplasia. South Asian Federation of Obstet Gynaecol. 2009;1(3):45-8.

ICO information centre on HPV and cancer. Human Papillomavirus and related diseases in India. Summary Report. 2014:2014.

Anderson SG, Linton EB. The diagnostic accuracy of cervical biopsy and cervical conisation. Am J Obstet Gynaecol. 1967;99:113.

Camsor and Gall. Dysplasia and early neoplasia of uterine cervix: a review. Obstet Gynaec Survey. 1974;34:1.

Rosa M. Cervix- Cytology. Bethesda System 2001 for cervicovaginal cytology reporting. 2010.

Rajput N, Verma YS, Ahirwar G. Detection of abnormal cervical cytology by pap’s smear and comparison between rural and urban women. J Evolut Med Dent Sci. 2013;2(41):4923-30.

Vaghela BK, Vaghela VK, Santwani PM. Analysis of abnormal cervical cytology in papanicolaou smear at tertiary care centre: a retrospective study. Int J Biomed Adv Res. 2014;5(1);47-49.

Bamanikar SA, Baravkar DS, Chandanwale SS, Dapkekar P. Study of cervical pap smears in a tertiary Hospital. Indian Medical Gazette. 2014;250-254.

Umarani MK, Gayathri MN, Madhu Kumar R. Study of cervical cytology in papanicolaou smears in a tertiary care hospital. Indian J Pathol Oncol. 2016;3(4):679-83.

Bhavani K, Sheela PV, Vani I, Jyothsna Y, Uma N. Study of cervical cytology in papanicolaou smears in a tertiary care center. IAIM. 2017;4(11):172-6.

Roopali. Sociodemographic risk factors for cervical cancer in Jammu and Kashmir state of India first ever report from Jammu. Indian J Sci Res. 2014;9(1):105-10.

Maibam AD, Singh KI. International Scholarly and Scientific Research Innovation. 2017;11(8):2076-9.

Kaur T, Garg S, Mor S. Sociodemographic and reproductive risk factors in cervical cancer. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol. 2016 May;5(5):1510-3.

Khushboo V. Clinical assessment and correlation of pap smear and liquid based cytology in bad cervix. J Evolut Med Dent Sci. 2014;53(16):12277-87.

Khalaf MK, Rasheed FA, Hussain SAR. Association between early marriage and other sociomedical characterstics with the cervical pap smear results in Iraqi Women. Adv Sexual Med. 2015;5:73-82.

Nayani ZS, Hendre PC. Comparison and correlation of pap smear with colposcopy and histopathology in evaluation of cervix. J Evol Med Dent Sci. 2015;4(53):9236-47.

Tapasvi I, Tapasvi C, Aggarwal A. To correlate the effect of parity, age of marriage, religion, socioeconomic status and contraception practiced in the development of premalignant and malignant lesions of cervix. Int J Res Health Sci. 2015;3(1):174-8.

Bhalero A. Correlative study of pap smear, colposcopy and histopathology. J South Asian Federat Obstet Gynaecol. 2012;4(2):97-8.

Gupta K. Prevalence of cervical dysplasia in western Uttar Pradesh. Department of Pathology, Lala Lajpat Rai Memorial Medical College, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India. J Cytol. 2013;30(4):257-62.

Schiff M, Miller J, Masuk M. Contraceptive and reproductive risk factors for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in American Indian Women, Medicine and health. Int J Epidemiol. 2000:29(6):983-90.

Dasari P, Rajathi S, Kumar SV. Colposcopic evaluation of cervix with persistent inflammatory pap smear: a prospective analytical study. Cyto J. 2010;7:16.

Verma A, Verma S, Vashist S, Attri S, Singhal A. A study on cervical cancer screening in symptomatic women. Middle East Ferti Soc J. 2017;22(1):39-42.