DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-1770.ijrcog20191970

Occurrence of hypothyroidism and its correlation with reproductive health problems: a cross sectional study

Selvi Kumar, Pushpa Kotur

Abstract


Background: Thyroid dysfunction is 10 times more common in women than in men. Hypothyroidism among women of reproductive age group is linked to menstrual irregularities, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), miscarriage and infertility. Several studies are available in the literature reporting regarding impact of hypothyroidism on one or the other isolated problems of reproductive health problems.

Methods: This cross-sectional study is conducted including 290 participants having various reproductive health problems attending the gynaecology OPD of a rural based tertiary care hospital of Tamil Nadu during the year 2017-2018.These participants were investigated for thyroid dysfunction and its correlation of hypothyroidism with reproductive health problems viz. menstrual irregularities, Polycystic ovarian diseases (PCOS), infertility and pregnancy loss was studied.

Results: It was observed that 80.6% of the 290 participants were euthyroid and 16.97% were hypothyroid, who presented with menstrual irregularities like menorrhagia (28.6%), oligomenorrhea (20.8%), amenorrhoea (21.3%), PCOS (28.6%), infertility (21.6%) and 23.8% hypothyroid women had pregnancy losses of varying number.

Conclusions: In present study the occurrence of hypothyroidism was found to be 16.89%. Since hypothyroidism has close association with problems like menstrual irregularities, PCOS, miscarriages and infertility, thyroid function test should be routinely recommended for these women. Thyroid dysfunction can be corrected with simple, cost-effective treatment.  This will help in improvement in pregnancy outcome and also avoid subjecting women for major surgeries for menorrhagia.


Keywords


Hypothyroidism, Infertility, Menstrual irregularities, Miscarriages, PCOS, Reproductive age

Full Text:

PDF

References


Unnikrishnan AG, Menon UV. Thyroid disorders in India: An epidemiological perspective. Indian J Endocrinol Metabol. 2011;15(Suppl2):S78.

Mazzaferri EL. Evaluation and management of common thyroid disorders in women. Americ J Obstetr Gynecol. 1997;176(3):507-14.

Lincoln SR, Ke RW, Kutteh WH. Screening for hypothyroidism in infertile women. J Reprod Medic. 1999;44(5):455-7.

Bhatia P, Dubey M, Choudhary Y. Prevalence of hypothyroidism amongst college girls of Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India: a cross sectional study. International J Community Medic Public Health. 2016;3(12):3345-8.

Senthilkumaran S, Sathyaprakash V, Sundararajan A. A Study on Prevalence and Distribution of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Rural Women. Sch J App Med Sci. 2015;3(1D):287-90.

Allen E. Anatomy, Head and Neck, Thyroid. Current neurology and neuroscience reports. U.S. National Library of Medicine; 2019. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK470452/

Nanda SS, Dash S, Behera A, Mishra B. Thyroid profile in polycystic ovarian syndrome. J Evoluti Medi Denta Scien. 2014 21;3(37):9594-601.

Byna P, Siddula S, Kolli S, Shaik MV. Thyroid abnormality in perimenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding. Int J Resea Medi Scienc. 2015;3(11):3250.

Roberts CG, Ladenson PW. Hypothyroidism. Lancet. Hypothyroidism. Lancet. 2004;6:793-803.

Komathi, R.,Mallika A and Shantha a study of thyroid profile in abnormal uterine bleeding among reproductive age group women IJCMS. 2016;6(7):133-6.

Habbul PP, Shaikh AK. Study of thyroid dysfunction in association with infertility. Int J Biochem Resea Revi. 2016;11(2):1-6.

Sj R, Gt R, Nr H, Jb R, Av K, Rd S. Hypothyroidism in polycystic ovarian syndrome: a comparative study of clinical characteristics, metabolic and hormonal parameters in euthyroid and hypothyroid polycystic ovarian syndrome women. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol. 2016:3181-5.

Cyriac T, Chellappa PM, Sinnet PR, Immanuel A. Prevalence of hypothyroidism and its association with anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody among adult seafood consuming population attending a tertiary health care centre in Kerala. Int J Biomed Adv Res 2015;6:648-55.

Deshmukh PY, Boricha BG, Pandey A. The association of thyroid disorders with abnormal uterine bleeding. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol. 2015;4:701-8.

Swarupa RA, Rekha B, Reddy GA. Study of Hypothyroidism in Women with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding. IOSR J Dent Med Sci. 2016; 15(4):12-8.

Ghosh R, Patel RR. Study of association of thyroid disorders with abnormal uterine bleeding. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol. 2017;6:2302-5.

Ramya MR, Parvarthavarthini, Sauvrey D, Sankareswari R. Menstrual disorders associated with thyroid dysfunction. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol. 2017;6:5113-7.

Sinha U, Sinharay K, Saha S, Longkumer TA, Baul SN, Pal SK. Thyroid disorders in polycystic ovarian syndrome subjects: A tertiary hospital based cross-sectional study from Eastern India. Indian journal of endocrinology and metabolism. 2013;17(2):304.

Priyatharshini M, Muraliswaran P, Kanagavalli P, Radhika G, Srikanth S. A retrospective study of thyroid disorders among women of reproductive age group in Puducherry. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences. 2014;5:748-53.

Yu Q, Wang JB. Subclinical hypothyroidism in PCOS: impact on presentation, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular risk. BioMed Research International. 2016;2016.

Chacko AM, Geetha A, Kumari B, Deepti GN, Cherian S. Coexisting hypothyroidism-Does it aggravate PCOS?. Internation J Clinic Biochemist Rese. 2018;5(2):244-8.

Bedaiwy MA, Abdel-Rahman MY, Tan J, Abdel Hafez FF, Abdelkareem AO, Henry D, et al. Clinical, hormonal, and metabolic parameters in women with subclinical hypothyroidism and polycystic ovary syndrome: a cross-sectional study. Journal of Women's Health. 2018;27(5):659-64.

Verma I, Sood R, Juneja S, Kaur S. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in infertile women and evaluation of response of treatment for hypothyroidism on infertility. Internat J Applied Basic Medic Res. 2012;2(1):17.

Shrestha A, Chawla CD. Abnormal Thyroid Function and Recurrent Pregnancy Loss. Nepal J Obstetr Gynaecol. 2014;9(1):29-32.

Gahlawat P, Singh A, Nanda S, Kharb S. Thyroid dysfunction in early pregnancy and spontaneous abortion. Biomedic Biotechnol Res J. 2017;1(1):81.