Maternal pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and uterine artery Doppler changes as predictors of pre-eclampsia: a prospective observational study from a teaching hospital in Mysore, Karnataka, India
Keywords:High risk pregnancy, Uterine artery Doppler, Uteroplacental circulation
Background: Hypertensive disorder affects 10-12% of pregnancies. Identifying women, who are at risk is conducive to prompt gestational management. PAPP-A is a protein complex produced by the developing trophoblasts. Low levels of PAPP-A at 10–14 weeks is a marker of impaired placentation and a smaller placental mass. Doppler imaging permits non-invasive evaluation of the uteroplacental circulation and is invaluable in the management of high-risk pregnancies. The uterine artery Doppler screening identifies patients at risk for developing preeclampsia. To study the association of PAPP-A and the uterine artery Doppler changes as predictor of pre-eclampsia in pregnant women at 11-14 weeks of gestation.
Methods: This was a prospective study of 150 pregnant women presenting at 11-14 weeks of gestation for a prenatal check-up. After considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria, serum samples for PAPP-A were assayed. Ultrasound Doppler was used to obtain uterine artery flow velocity waveforms and mean pulsatility index and resistance index of uterine arteries were calculated. Cases were followed up till term and observed for development of pre-eclampsia.
Results: 48.6% had low serum PAPP-A levels, in which 77% developed PE. The Mean PI and RI is 2.34±1.16 and 0.58±0.1 respectively. 30% women with abnormal PI values and 24% of women with abnormal RI values developed PE.
Conclusions: The combination of maternal history with low serum PAPP-A levels and abnormal uterine artery Doppler at 11-14 weeks can be used as predictor of pre-eclampsia.
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