DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-1770.ijrcog20190310

Uterine atony risk factor after vaginal delivery in a tertiary hospital in Antananarivo, Madagascar

Tanjona A. Ratsiatosika, Randriamahavonjy Romuald, Rainibarijaona A. Lantonirina, Housni I. A., Rakotonirina A. Martial, Said Ismael Mhoudine, Rakotonirina Ando-Miora, Andrianampanalinarivo H. Rakotovao

Abstract


Background: Postpartum hemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal death in developing countries. Uterine atony is the cause in 80% of cases. Through this study, we want to determine risk factors for uterine atony after vaginal delivery route with oxytocin-mediated delivery.

Methods: This is a retrospective case-control study ranging from January 1st 2017 to June 31st 2018 at the Befelatanana University Hospital Centre of Gynecology-Obstetrics. The cases consisted of patients who had spontaneous vaginal delivery in the centre and had uterine atony. Authors studied maternal, obstetrical, neonatal parameters. Authors used the R software for the statistical analysis of the results.

Results: We found 40 cases of uterine atony out of 5421 deliveries with a prevalence of 0,73%. The average age was 27.73 years old±6.46 years old (p=0.113). The average parity was 2.67±1.62 (p=0.22). The total duration of labor was 6.88±2.95 hours (p=0.0187). The average duration of rupture of the membrane was 5.80±11.90 hours (0.003376). We found as risk factor of uterine atony the increase in oxytocin infusion rate during labor (OR=18.67, 95% CI 2.21-157.57), the artificial rupture of membranes (OR=5, 27, 95% CI 2.11-13.19), artificial induction of labor (OR=7.08, 95% CI 2.06-24.28) and labor over six hours (OR=2.53, 95% CI) % 1.18-5.47). In univariate analysis, premature delivery and a hypotrophic fetus were a factor risk of uterine atony (OR=3.07, 95% CI 1.27-7.44 and OR=3.43 95% CI 1.48-8.09 respectively) but this risk is not statistically significant in multivariate analysis with logistic regression (OR=1.27, 95% CI 0.40-3.84 and OR=2.19 95% CI 0.77-6.22). The main treatment was uterotonic drug use (72.5%). Authors identified seven cases of haemostasis hysterectomy and two cases of maternal death.

Conclusions: Present study confirms risk factors for uterine atony already known as prolonged labor and increased oxytocic infusion rate. Unrecognized factors have been identified as a risk factor for uterine atony such as the duration of rupture of the membranes and artificial rupture of the membranes. A minimal inflammation hypothesis that reduces susceptibility to oxytocin may explain this association. Knowing these factors would reduce the occurrence of uterine atony to reduce maternal mortality.


Keywords


Emergency peripartum hysterectomy, Oxytocic therapy, Postpartum hemorrhage, Risk factor, Uterine atony

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