DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-1770.ijrcog20185438

A clinical study of impact of anaemia in pregnancy on maternal and neonatal outcome

Lokeshwari K., Anju Arpana, Manoj Kumar Mudigubba

Abstract


Background: The aim is to study effect of anaemia in obstetrics patients during antepartum, intrapartum and postpartum and to find the incidence of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in those patients.

Methods: A prospective clinical study was conducted on patients receiving obstetric care at Basaveshwara Medical College and Hospital from July 2016 to July 2018.Pregnant women with Hb less than 8g were included in the study to determine the outcome of pregnancy in severe anaemia and determine the causes of anaemia. Acute cases of obstetrical haemorrhages as in antepartum and postpartum haemorrhages and all medical and surgical high-risk factors except anaemia, were excluded from the study.

Results: A total of 200 pregnant anaemic patients with haemoglobin less than 8g/dl were included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups based on haemoglobin concentration at first presentation. Patients with haemoglobin level less than 5g/dl were included in group A (N=44, 22%), and rest of the patients were included in group B (N=156, 78%). Most commonly observed complications in the study were preeclampsia and eclampsia (46 cases), preterm labour (46 cases) and IUGR (30 cases). In both group of patients, the commonest cause of anaemia in pregnancy was iron deficiency. The greater the severity of anaemia in pregnancy, greater was the risk of preeclampsia, preterm delivery, low birth weight and stillbirth.

Conclusions: This study reveals that severe anaemia which is commonly observed in the pregnancy in our country, gives rise to maternal and perinatal morbidities and mortalities.


Keywords


Anemia, Haemoglobin, Perinatal outcome

Full Text:

PDF

References


McLean E, Cogswell M, Egli I, Wojdyla D, Benoist de B. Worldwide prevalence of anaemia, WHO vitamin and mineral nutrition information system. Pub Health Nutri. 2009;12(4):444-54.

Sharma JB. Nutritional anaemia during pregnancy in non-industrialized countries: progress in obstetrics and gynaecology. 15th ed. Spain, Churchill Livingstone; 2003:103-11.

Centers for disease control, criteria for anaemia in children and childbearing aged women. MMWR 1998;38:400-404.

De Mayer EM, Tegman A. Prevalence of anaemia in the world. World Health Organization Qlty 1998; 38(3):302-16.

Couillet M, Serhier Z, Tachfouti N, Elrhazi K, Nejjari C, Perez F. The use of antenatal services in health centers of Fes, Morocco. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2007;27(7):688-94.

Shidhaye PR, Giri PA, Nagaonkar SN, Shidhaye RR. Prevalence of anaemia in postnatal women at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Mumbai. J Med Nutr Nutraceut. 2012;1(1):54-7.

Mahashabde P, Arora VK, Sharma S, Shahjada A, Dabhi HM. Prevalence of anaemia and its socio demographic determinants in pregnant women: A cross-sectional study in tertiary health care setup in central India. Natl J Community Med. 2014;5(1): 126-30.

Ahmad N, Kalakoti P, Bano R, Syed MMA. The prevalence of anaemia and associated factors in pregnant women in a rural Indian community. AMJ 2010;3(5):276-80.

Singh U, Singh SP, Niranjan A, Sharma S, Srivastava A, Singh HK. Prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy in rural western U.P: A prospective study. Indian J Pub Health Res Develop. 2011;2(2):60-3.

Viveki RG, Halappanavar AB, Viveki PR, Halki SB, Maled VS, Deshpande AI Ameen PS. Prevalence of anaemia and its epidemiological determinant in pregnant women. J Med Sci. 2012;5(3):216-23.

Ivan EA, Mangaiarkkarasi A. Evaluation of anaemia in booked antenatal mothers during the last trimester. J Clinic Diagnos Res. 2013;7(11):2487-490.

Park K, Park S. Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine.23rd ed. 2000:325-451.

Balarajan U, Ramakrishnan E, Ozaltin A, Shankar H, Subramanian SV. Anaemia in low-income and middle-income countries. The Lancet. 2011; 378(9809):2123-135.

DLHS on RCH. Nutritional status of children and prevalence of anaemia among children, adolescent girls and pregnant women 2002-2004. Available at: http://www.rchindia.org/nr_india.htm 2006.

World Health Organization Prevention and Management of anaemia in pregnancy. WHO/FHE/MSM/93.5 Geneva; WHO,1993

Chowdhury S, Rahman M, Moniruddin ABM. Anaemia in pregnancy: Review article. Med Today 2014;26(1):49-52.

Ali AA, Rayis DA, Abdallah TM, Elbashir MI, AdamI. Severe anaemia is associated with a higher risk for pre eclampsia and poor perinatal outcomes in Kassala hospital, Eastern Sudan. BMC Res Notes 2011;4(1):311.

Rohilla, M, Raveendran A, Dhaliwal LK, Chopra S. Severe anaemia in pregnancy: a tertiary hospital experience from northern India. J Obstetrics Gynaecol. 2010;30(7):694-96

Kalaivani K. Prevalence and consequences of anaemia in pregnancy. Indian J Med Res. 2009;130:627-33.

Lone FW, Qureshi RN, Emanual F. Maternal anaemia and its impact on perinatal outcome in a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. Trop Med Int Health2004;9(4):486-88.

Badshah S, Mason L, Mckelvie K, Payne R, Lisboa PJ. Risk factors for low birth weight in the public hospitals at peshawar, NWFP-Pakistan. BMC Public Health 2008;8(1):197-206.

Prema K, Kumari NS, Ramalakshmi BA. Anaemia and adverse obstetric outcome. Nutr Rep Int 1981;23:637-43.