Published: 2016-12-15

Current status of immunoglobulin M seroprevalence in women with adverse reproductive outcomes in current pregnancy: experience in a teaching institution

Sana Tiwari, Balvinder Singh Arora, Poornima Sen, Rupali Dewan


Background: During pregnancy, the immune system is suppressed, making the individual susceptible to infections. One of the most common causes of perinatal mortality in developing countries is TORCH infections. Screening for TORCH agents during pregnancy identifies high risk mothers thereby providing the clinician with opportunity to intervene.

Methods: A total of two hundred women with adverse pregnancy events in current pregnancy formed the study group while 150 women with normal pregnancy outcome formed control group. Presence of IgM antibodies against TORCH agents were detected by ELISA and results expressed qualitatively as positive or negative.

Results: Our study revealed 45.56% women in current pregnancy were positive for IgM serology while in controls it was only 14.67 % (p value <0.0001). The percentage frequency of TORCH agents in terms of IgM seropositivity for toxoplasma was as 14.63%, 15.86% for rubella, 23.17% for CMV, 46.34% for HSV.

Conclusions: It may not be possible to screen all patients with adverse reproductive outcome for TORCH but all women with adverse reproductive outcome in current pregnancy should be subjected to TORCH testing, especially to safeguard future pregnancies. The affected females should be counseled regarding continuation of pregnancy but remain under observation and treatment. Positive serology findings as supportive evidence to clinical diagnosis, if kept in consideration, may help manage future pregnancies more effectively.


TORCH, IgM seroprevalence, Pregnancy, ELISA

Full Text:



Turbadkar D, Mathur M, Rele M. Seroprevalence of TORCH infections in bad obstetric history. Indian J Med Micro. 2003;21:108-10.

Mookherjee N, Gogate A, Shah PK. Microbiology evaluation of women with bad obstetric history. Indian J Med Res. 1995;102:103-7.

Janak K, Richa M, Abhiruchi P, Yashodhra P. Adverse reproductive outcome induced by parvovirus B19 and TORCH infections in women with high risk pregnancy. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2011;5(12):868-73.

Kaur R, Gupta N, Nair D, Kakkar M, Mathur MD. Screening for torch infections in pregnant women: a report from Delhi. Southeast Asian J Tropical Medicine Public Health. 1999;30:284-6.

Sadik MS, Fatima F, Jamil K, Patil C. Study of TORCH profile in patients with bad obstetric history. J Bio Med. 2012;4(2):95-101.

Srirupa P, Nibedita D, Pal D. Seroprevalence and risk factors of toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women in Kolkata. India J Recent Advances Applied Sci. 2011;26:27-33.

Devi R, Sreenivas N, Rajangam S. Bad Obstetrics History and Infectious Causes. Int J Hum Gene. 2002;2(4):269-71.

Padmavathy M, Mangala G, Malini J, Umapathy BL, Navaneeth BV, Bhatia M, Harle S. Seroprevalence of TORCH infections and adverse reproductive outcome in current pregnancy with bad obstetric history. J Clin Biomed Sci. 2013;3(2):63-71.

Surpam RB, Kamlakar UP, Khadse RK, Qazi MS, Jalgaonkar SV. Sero-prevalence study for TORCH infections in women with bad obstetric history. J Obst Gynae India. 2006;56:41-3.

Yashodhara P. Prevlance of TORCH infections in Indian pregnant women. Indian J Med Microb. 2002;20:57-8.

Kapil A, Broor S. Primary cytomegalovirus infection in pregnant and non-pregnant women in India. Indian J Med Microbiol. 1992;10:53-5.

Haider M, Rizvi M, Khan N, Malik A. Serological study of herpes virus infection in female patients with bad obstetric history. Biol Med. 2011;3(2):284-90.

Sen MR, Shukla BN, Tuhina B. Prevlance of serum antibodies to TORCH infections in around Varanasi, Northern India. J Clin Diagn Res. 2012;6:1483-5.

Vounter LA, Hickok DE, Brown Z, Reid L, Corey L. Recurrent genital herpes simplex virus infection in pregnancy: infant outcome and frequency of asymptomatic recurrences. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1982;143:75.