DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-1770.ijrcog20163431
Published: 2016-12-15

Prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women in rural India: a longitudinal observational study

Mishu Mangla, Deepak Singla

Abstract


Background: Anemia is a major public health problem affecting both the developed as well as the developing countries. According to World Health Organization, prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women in developed countries is about 14%, whereas it is still as high as 51% in the developing world. The aim of the present study was to understand the health profile and the socio demographic factors of the country’s rural pregnant females and to estimate the exact prevalence of anemia and its associated factors among pregnant women at term based on the level of hemoglobin.

Methods: This was a prospective, longitudinal cross sectional study. Hemoglobin estimates from pregnant females at term using antenatal care services or delivery services in a general hospital in a rural area of India, from September 2014 to March 2015 i.e. a period of 6 months, were obtained. The incidence of anemia and its associated socio demographic factors was studied. Although the overall prevalence of anaemia did not vary significantly with literacy level, the severity of anaemia differs to a great extent.

Results: The prevalence of anemia was 98% among the pregnant females in this region of rural India. Out of these 41.76% had mild anemia, 37.05% had moderate anemia, 15.88% had severe anemia and 3.29% very severe anemia according to ICMR classification of anemia. The mean hemoglobin level was found to be 8.845. The number of ANC visits in present pregnancy and whether the pregnant female had taken iron folic acid prophylaxis also were very significant variables in the determination of prevalence as well as the severity of anemia.

Conclusions: There is a significantly high prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women in rural areas of India. Our study has also enlisted a few socio demographic factors that contribute to such high prevalence of this disease. Programs focused on target population need to be planned and implemented with active participation of locals.


Keywords


Anemia, Socio demographic factors, Pregnancy at term

Full Text:

PDF

References


Mayer EM, Tegman A. Prevalence of anaemia in the World. World Health Organ Qlty. 1998;38:302-16.

Ezzati M, Lopus AD, Dogers A, Vander HS, Murray C. Selected major risk factors and global and regional burden of disease. Lancet. 2002;360:1347-60.

USAID’s A2Z micronutrient and child blindness project, ACCESS program, and food and nutrition technical assistance (FANTA) project. Maternal Anemia. 2006.

Levy A, Fraser D, Kartz M, Mazor M, Sheiner E. Maternal anaemia during pregnancy is an independent risk factor for low birth weight and pre mature delivery. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2005;122(2):182-6.

Lone FW, Qureshi RN, Emanuel F. Maternal anaemia and its impact on perinatal outcome. Trop Med Int Health. 2004;9(4):486-90.

Zhang Q, Ananth CV, Rhoads GG, Li Z. The impact of maternal Anemia on perinatal mortality: a population-based, prospective cohort study in China. Annals Epidemiology. 2009;19(11):793-9.

Rusia U, Madan N, Agarwal N, Sikka M, Sood S. Effect of maternal iron deficiency anaemia on foetal outcome. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 1995;38:273-9.

Stoltzfus RJ, Mullany L, Black RE. Iron deficiency anemia. In Ezzati M., Lopez A. D., Rodgers A., Murray CJL. editor. Comparative quantification of health risks: Global and regional burden of disease attributable to selected major risk factors. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2004;1:163-209.

The second National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2). The database for implementation of the Reproductive and Child Health approach adopted by India. 1998-99.

National nutrition monitoring bureau (NNMB). NNMB micronutrient survey. Hyderabad: National Institute of Nutrition. 2002.

The 2005-06 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3). Series of national surveys. NFHS surveys: 1992-93 (NFHS-1) and 1998-99 (NFHS-2).

Toteja GS, Singh P. Micronutrient profile of Indian population. New Delhi. Indian Council of Medical Research. 2004:46.

International Institute of Population Sciences and Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. Nutritional status of children and prevalence of anemia among children, adolescent girls and pregnant women. District Level Household Survey on Reproductive and Child Health, India, 2002-2004. Available at http:// www.rchiips.org/ pdf/ rch2/ National_Nutrition_Report_RCH-II.pdf. Accessed on 16 May 2015.

Statistics information, District Sonipat at a glance. Available at sonipat.nic.in/statistics.htm. Accessed on 16 May 2016.

Rajaratnam J, Abel R, Ganes C, Aseelan S. Maternal anaemia: a persistent problem in rural Tamil Nadu. National Med J India. 2000;13(5):242-5.

WHO SEARO. Control of iron deficiency anemia in South-East Asia. Report of an intercountry Workshop. Salaya, Thailand. Institute Nutrition, Mahidol University. 1995:11-14.

Agarwal KN, Agarwal DK, Sharma A, Sharma K, Prasad K, Kalita MC, et al. Prevalence of anaemia in pregnant and lactating women in India. Indian J Med Res. 2006;124:173-84.

International Institute for Population Sciences (Deemed University) District Level Household and Facility Survey-4; State Fact Sheet Haryana. Mumbai:2012–13.Available at http:// www.http:// www.rchiips.org /pdf/dlhs4/report/HR.pdf. Accessed on 16 May 2015.

Kaur K. Anaemia ‘a silent killer’ among women in India: Present scenario. Euro J Zool Res. 2014;3(1):32-6.

Brabin L, Nicholas S, Gogate A, Gogate S, Karande A. High prevalence of anaemia among women in Mumbai, India. Food Nutrition Bull. 1998;19:205-9.

Thangleela T, Vijaylakshmi P. Prevalence of anemia in pregnancy. Indian J Nutrit Diet. 1994;31(2):26-9.

Dutta PK, Nagraj T, Gopinath VP. A case control study of anemia in pregnancy. Ind J Preventive Social Med. 1992;23(1):1-5.

Koen MC, Lemson MS, Kumar S, Abel R. Prevalence of anaemia among pregnant mothers in a rural south Indian population. J Obstet Gynecol India. 1992;42(6):283-7.

Bisoi S, Haldar D, Majumdar T, Bhattacharya N, Sarkar G, Ray S. Correlates of anemia among pregnant women in a rural area of West Bengal. Journal Family Welfare. 2011;57(1):72-8.