Study of congenital anomalies of fetus and its outcome in a tertiary care centre
Keywords:Congenital malformations, New-born, Still born, antenatal ultrasound, Central nervous system
Background: According to WHO Congenital anomalies are defined as structural or functional anomalies, including metabolic disorders which are present at the time of birth. Congenital anomalies are a major health problem accounting for 8% to 15% of perinatal deaths and 13% to 16% of neonatal deaths in India. This study was done to know the frequency, pattern of congenital anomalies and various presentations, which may help to develop strategies for patient counseling and management. The objective of study was to present the spectrum of various congenital anomalies, epidemiological features of pregnant women with anomalous fetus.
Methods: Retrospective, analytical hospital based study of 45 patients who delivered or aborted congenital anomalous baby from a period of 1st Jan 2012 to 31st August 2015. Relevant information regarding maternal age, parity, gestational age, birth weight, sex, and consanguinity antenatal ultrasound was documented.
Results: During the study period 45 congenital anomalies were seen in delivered babies and aborted fetus, 32 (71%) patients were in the age group of 20-29 years. 35 (77%) patients were from rural area and 29 (65%)were unbooked patients. The incidence of congenital malformations was higher among abortions and preterm deliveries. Incidence of congenital anomalies was higher in stillborn. 31 (68%) patients had anomalies diagnosed on antenatal ultrasound. Central nervous system was the most common system involved followed by musculoskeletal system. Anencephaly was the common malformation seen in 12 (27%) patients.Conclusions: Our study concluded that number of congenital anomalies were more in rural patients and were higher in stillborn. Central nervous system was commonly involved. Early diagnosis, antenatal ultrasonography, proper counseling for this pregnancy and subsequent pregnancy in needed for proper management of the problem.
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