DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-1770.ijrcog20221920

Screening and prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency among pregnant women

Mily Pandey, Sarita Singh, Manish Attri

Abstract


Background: Vitamin B12 deficiency (serum vitamin B12 <148pmol/L) is considered to be an important cause of anaemia in pregnancy. Pregnant women with this deficiency have an increased risk of developing preeclampsia, intra-uterine growth retardation and preterm labour. The current study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in pregnant women and its association with their dietary habits and socioeconomic status.

Methods: This was a cross sectional study conducted in a tertiary care institute over a period of 2 months. Pregnant women visiting antenatal OPD were included in the study and those receiving vitamin B12 supplements, antacids, antiepileptic medication or methotrexate were excluded. Each participant was subjected to a predesigned structured questionnaire and their serum vitamin B12 concentration was done using quantitative determination by microplate enzyme immunoassay.

Results: Of the 97 women included, majority were in the age group 20-25years (57.73%). 87.62% (85 women) were found to have anaemia and a total of 44women (45.36%) had vitamin B12 deficiency.

Conclusions: The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in north India is considerably high, which may be the cause of neural tube defects and poor birth outcomes and neurological deficit in children born to these mothers.


Keywords


Pregnancy, Vitamin B12 deficiency, Pregnant women

Full Text:

PDF

References


Finkelstein JL, Layden AJ, Stover PJ. Vitamin B-12 and Perinatal Health. Adv Nutr. 2015;6(5):552-63.

Allen LH. How common is vitamin B-12 deficiency? The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2009;89:693S-6S.

Hua X, Zhang J, Guo Y, Shen M, Gaudet L, Janoudi G, et al. Effect of folic acid supplemenattion during pregnancy on gestational hypertension/preeclampsia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Hypertens. Pregnancy. 2016;35(4):447-60.

Wilson RD. Pre-conception Folic Acid and Multivitamin Supplementation for the Primary and Secondary Prevention of Neural Tube Defects and Other Folic Acid-Sensitive Congenital Anomalies. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2015;37(6):534-49.

Hure A, Collins C, Smith R. A longitudinal study of maternal folate and vitamin B12 status in pregnancy and postpartum, with the same infant markers at 6 months of age. Maternal and Child Health Journal. 2012;16:792-801.

Hodgetts VA, Morris RK, Francis A, Gardosi J, Ismail KM. Effectiveness of folic acid supplementation in pregnancy on reducing the risk of small-for gestational age neonates: a population study, systematic review and metaanalysis. BJOG. 2014.

Fekete K, Berti C, Trovato M, Lohner S, Dullemeijer C, Souverein OW, et al. Effect of folate intake on health outcomes in pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis on birth weight, placental weight and length of gestation. Nutr J. 2012;11:75.

Gibney MJ. Introduction to Human Nutrition. 2nd ed.; 2009. Available from: https://www.wiley.com/en-af/Introd uction+to+Human+Nutrition%2C+2nd+Edition-p-9781405168076. Accessed on 21 April 2019.

González HF, Visentin S. Micronutrients and neurodevelopment: An update. Arch Argent Pediat. 2016;114:570-5.

Gille D, Schmid A. Vitamin B12 in meat and dairy products. Nutr Rev. 2015;73:106-15.

Watanabe F, Yabuta Y, Tanioka Y, Bito T. Biologically active vitamin B12 compounds in foods for preventing deficiency among vegetarians and elderly subjects. J Agric Food Chem. 2013;61:6769-75.

Just MJ, Kozakiewicz M. Depressive disorders co-existing with addison-biermer anemia – Case report. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2015;11:1145-8.

Ingole JR, Patel RD, Ingole SJ, Pandave HT. Opportunistic screening of Vitamin B12 deficiency in IT professionals presenting for routine health check-up. J Clin Diagn Res. 2015;9:OC01-2.

Pawlak R, Parrott SJ, Raj S, Cullum-Dugan D, Lucus D. How prevalent is vitamin B (12) deficiency among vegetarians? Nutr Rev. 2013;71:110-7.

Jeruszka-Bielak M, Isman C, Schroder TH, Li W, Green TJ, Lamers Y. South Asian ethnicity is related to the highest risk of Vitamin b12 deficiency in pregnant Canadian women. Nutrients. 2017;9(4):317.

Samuel TM, Duggan C, Thomas T, Bosch R, Rajendran R, Virtanen SM, et al. Vitamin B (12) intake and status in early pregnancy among urban South Indian women. Ann Nutr Metab. 2013;62:113-22.

Katre P, Bhat D, Lubree H, Otiv S, Joshi S, Joglekar C, et al. Vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation and plasma total homocysteine concentrations in pregnant Indian women with low B12 and high folate status. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19:335-43.

Rashid S, Meier V, Patrick H. Review of Vitamin B12 deficiency in pregnancy: a diagnosis not to miss as veganism and vegetarianism become more prevalent. Eur J Haematol. 2021;106:450-5.